Migration- A Global Issue in Need of Global Solution
“Migration is the expression of the human aspiration for dignity, safety, and a better future. It is a part of the social fabric, part of very make-up as a human family.”
Migration is a global concern, especially after the Rohingya Crisis. Presently, more people than ever live in another than the country they were born. In 2019, the number of migrants globally reached an estimated 272 million, 51 million more than before. Migrants comprise 3.5 percent of the world population.
Compared to 2.8 percent in 2000 and 2.3 percent in 1980, the proportion of international migrants in the world population has also risen. While many individuals migrate out of choice because of many circumstances as many others migrate out of necessity. The total number of globally forcibly displaced people is 70 million for the first time in the history of UNHCR's almost 70 years favored at the end of the year 2018. Female migrants constituted 48 percent of these international migrants. This data shows the worsening of the situation day by day.
The UN Migration Agency (IOM- International Organization of Migration) defines a migrant as any person who is moving or has moved across an international border, regardless of (1) the person’s legal status; (2) whether the movement is forcible or voluntarily; (3) what the causes for the movement are; or (4) what the time of the stay is.
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development recognizes for the first time the contribution of migration to sustainable development and growth of society. 11 out of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are related to targets regarding migration or mobility. The Agenda's most favored principle is to "leave no one behind".
The SDGs’ priority for migration is to facilitate orderly, safe and responsible migration and mobility of people through a smooth transition, including through the implementation of well-managed migration policies as in planning humans are best qualified. Other targets directly related to migration mention trafficking, remittances, international student mobility, and many more dangerous possibilities asking for life. As we know, migration is not just an issue but is indirectly relevant to many more cross-cutting targets.
The immediate priority must be to help the refugees who bear the heaviest burden, with better access to shelter, health care, quality education, and in terms better employment opportunity. Many of the countries neighboring conflicts that have welcomed most of the refugees have stretched their capacity to absorb people. India helped a lot of Tibetians and Rohingyas even having disputes with China and Bangladesh respectively.
To support additional public services for refugees will require more financial resources and the international community must help to support them in any possible way.
Some countries have been willing to receive large flows of refugees and done their utmost to provide them with food and shelter, like Germany. Others should look at how they might increase their scope for admitting more refugees, unlike the USA in the case of Mexico who is willing for a better life. Ultimately, however, one thing is very clear: no country can manage the refugee issue on its own. We need global cooperation and financial support and medical care also.
The key challenge is to facilitate the smooth integration of newcomers whether economic migrants or refugees who may belong to any country. No doubt, there will be hardship and difficulties at the outset but trying is the best possible way to do.
First, strengthening the ability of labor markets to absorb migrants—by enabling immediate ability to seek work and providing better job matching services and level of income.
Second, enhancing access to education and training—by providing affordable education, language, and job training and cultural introduction.
Third, improving skill recognition—by adopting simple and transparent procedures to recognize foreign qualifications and asking for organizations to look at them.
Finally, supporting migrant entrepreneurs—by reducing barriers to start-ups and providing support with legal advice, counseling, and training with the support of local products’ introduction.
Demographic composition, globalization, and environmental degradation mean that migration pressures across borders will increase in the coming decade and the impact is already seen from previous migrations like in the case of Israel which attracted Jewish migrants. In this case, the island nations are in line to extract what their people will see in the next 20 years, “building a wall is not a solution”.
Global policy efforts, therefore, must focus on better cooperation and dialogue among the affected countries with the interference of the UN and other International Bodies like the IMF(International Monetary Fund) and ILO(International Labor Organization). This includes promoting fair burden-sharing, facilitating remittance flows, protecting labor rights, and promoting a safe and secure working environment for migrants and equal income opportunities as the citizens so they can uplift the living standards.
Migration is a global issue and needs a galaxy-sized solution, we need to work in cooperation.